New research that examined the impact of exposure to lead, both in the air and in topsoil, on fertility in the United States has found that exposure matters for both women and men. It is the first study to find causal evidence of the relationship between lead exposure and fertility rates in the 1980s and mid-2000s.
The study, by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University, is published as a working paper by the National Bureau of Economic Research.
“Until now, we have lacked causal evidence of the effects of lead exposure,” explains Karen Clay, professor of economics and public policy at Carnegie Mellon University’s Heinz College of Information Systems and Public Policy, who led the study. “Lead is an underappreciated environmental toxin, and we need to address this issue through cleanup efforts and solutions that focus on improving air quality and reducing lead in soil.”
The study found that increased exposure to lead lowered the general fertility rate for women of childbearing age (15 to 44 years). In 1978-88, reductions in airborne lead, which were largely due to regulations such as the Clean Air Act, boosted fertility rates, and in the 2000s, higher levels of lead in topsoil decreased fertility rates.
“Lead may continue to impair fertility today: Many Americans may not be aware that they live in counties with high lead levels because of highways, old manufacturing centers, or airborne lead that has landed on the soil,” said Edson Severnini, assistant professor of economics and public policy at Heinz College, who coauthored the paper. “Our findings could help reduce this exposure.”